A capacitor is an electronic component that, alongside resistors and inductors, make up one of the most fundamental passive components used in today’s designs. Capacitors have the ability to store energy using at least two conductive plates separated by a dielectric material. Examples of dialectric materials found in the most common capacitors include ceramic, electrolytic and film. Capacitors are used within electronic designs as a means for local energy storage, voltage spike suppression, and complex signal filtering.
The amount of charge a capacitor can store is known as its capacitance, measured in farad. Some important factors to consider while selecting a capacitor include temperature limitations, series resistance, resonance, power dissipation factor, tolerance, and polarization, to name a few.