A converter is an electrical circuit that takes an AC or DC input and produces a DC output with a different voltage. This is achieved through high-frequency switching actions using inductive and capacitive filter elements. The purpose of a power converter is to transform electric energy into a desired form that suits the specific load. It can increase or decrease the input voltage magnitude, change polarity, or generate multiple output voltages with different polarities.
A power converter's main task is to control the flow of electrical energy by supplying voltages and currents that are optimal for the intended loads. Initially, electromechanical converters were used, but nowadays static power converters using power semiconductors are more common. These static converters are smaller, have better performance, and are used in various applications, including particle accelerators.