Fiber optics, or optical fibers, are thin glass strands bundled together to form cables that transmit light signals over long distances. The light signals encoded with data are sent through the fiber and decoded at the receiving end. This transmission medium allows for high-speed and long-distance data transfer. Fiber optics work by reflecting light off the cable walls as it travels through the core, which is surrounded by cladding to prevent signal leakage. There are different types of fiber optic cables, including single mode and multimode fibers, each suited for specific applications. Single mode fibers are used for CATV, internet, and telephone applications, while multimode fibers are employed for connecting computer networks. Simplex cables have a single strand, while duplex cables have two strands for bi-directional communication. Fiber optics are commonly used for signal transmission, communication, and video applications.